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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Describe regions of the body in reference to anatomical position.
  • Identify three body planes in reference to anatomical position.
  • Relate individual organs to specific body cavities.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine prepared sides of epithelial tissue from the trachea and the lungs.
  • Identify respiratory organs using a virtual human model.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify organs of the respiratory system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect the respiratory system of a human using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect the kidney system of a human using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.
  • Virtually dissect the renal system of a human using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify and label the bones of the axial skeleton on the model skeleton and the virtual model.
  • Identify and label the bones of the appendicular skeleton on the model skeleton and the virtual model.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a blood smear on a blank slide using Wright’s stain and Wright’s buffer.
  • Identify erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets in the microscopic view of blood tissue.
  • Perform a blood-typing test and explain its significance.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify microscopic features of the circulatory system.
  • Describe the flow of blood through the heart and body using correct anatomical terms.
  • Dissect a sheep heart and identify the major features.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify organs of the circulatory system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the effects of exercise on blood pressure.
  • Measure the effects of exercise on pulse at the radial and carotid arteries.
  • Analyze abnormal ECG readings.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect the circulatory system of a human using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect a human heart using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe a prepared slide of human skin and identify cellular structures.
  • Calculate surface area:volume ratio for a range of cell sizes.
  • Relate cell surface area:volume ratios to passive diffusion.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe osmosis with human cells by using blood smears and microscopy.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect the digestive system of a human using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model the action of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system used by the body to maintain a stable pH.
  • Measure the pH of human urine and saliva.
  • Observe the effects of electrolytes on electrical conductivity.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect a human brain using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify muscles of the head and neck, torso, and limbs
  • Model two muscles on the skeleton for each region of the body: head and neck, torso, and limbs
  • Classify muscles as agonists, synergists, fixators, or antagonists
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify specific muscles 

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect the muscular system using the Biodigital Human Platform and to identify and label major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify the components of an optical microscope and explain their function.
  • Calculate the total magnification and field of view for the lenses of an optical microscope.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the microscopic structure of the three different types of cartilage.
  • Observe different joints on the human skeleton model and palpate these joints in the human body.
  • Perform complex human movements and describe the joint movements that are occurring.
  • Dissect a chicken wing to examine the structure and articulation of a joint.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate total daily energy expenditure (TDEE).
  • Record nutrient intake and analyze diet over the course of three days.
  • Test the presence of macromolecules from various known an unknown sample.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine prepared slides of human skin.
  • Create a fingerprint card using correct fingerprint rolling technique.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the microscopic structure of healthy bone.
  • Classify bones based on their location and shape.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate muscle fatigue after exercise.
  • Analyze EMG (electromyography) recordings comparing agonist and antagonist contractions to view the results of coactivation.
  • Analyze the output of a nerve conduction study.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a model of the pleural cavity and observe how changes in the volume of the cavity induce lung expansion.
  • Measure human respiratory values during rest and exercise.
  • Differentiate between normal and abnormal pulmonary function measurements.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect a human eye using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Virtually dissect the reproductive system of a human using the BioDigital Human Platform to identify and label the major structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Dissect a cow eye and identify the structures including the vitreous body, lens, and retina.
  • Examine pupillary response to light, blind spots, and afterimages.
  • Perform Weber and Rinne testing.
  • Test the effects that odor has on perception of taste.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the components of a cross section of spinal cord tissue.
  • Model the brain regions and identify the function of each.
  • Dissect a sheep brain and label internal and external structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine prepared slides of gastrointestinal and pancreatic tissues.
  • Label the organs of the digestive system using the virtual model.
  • Analyze the role of enzymes in digestion.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify organs of the digestive system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine prepared slides of endocrine tissue.
  • Examine the effects of external stressors on endocrine activity.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify organs of the endocrine system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine prepared slides of human skin
  • Create a fingerprint card using correct fingerprint rolling technique
  • Analyze the minutiae of fingerprints visible as a result of fingerprint rolling

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the histology of the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and tonsils.
  • Label the major anatomical structures of the lymphatic system using the virtual human model.
  • Perform an antigen-antibody tests to determine the source of an unknown albumin.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine and label a prepared slide of a neuromuscular junction.
  • Identify the nervous system components using the virtual model.
  • Perform the patellar reflex test on a willing participant.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify the nerves of the braxial plexus and sacral plexus.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine prepared slides of the testis and the ovaries and label microscopic structures.
  • Identify and label the organs of the reproductive system using the virtual model.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify organs of the reproductive system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the histology of the kidney and urinary bladder.
  • Label the organs of the human urinary system using a virtual model.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and identify structures of the urinary system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify microscopic structures of different tissue types.
  • Compare and contrast different tissue types.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the abnormalities in simulated urine samples using commercial test strips.
  • Measure the effects of hydration levels on urinalysis test parameters.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model acid deposition using nitrogen oxides and bromocresol green.
  • Examine how a buffer affects acid deposition.
  • Measure the effects of acid deposition on different types of rocks.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Distinguish renewable energy from alternative energy and discuss examples of each.
  • Review and compare energy profiles of two U.S. states and draw conclusions about production and consumption.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build the structures of 14 macromolecules using a modeling kit.**
    ** There are two versions of this lab. Only one version offers this modeling kit.
  • Perform qualitative tests to determine the presence of lipids, sugars, proteins, and starch in a variety of samples.
  • Identify an unknown through its composition of macromolecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Prepare 1 m2 quadrats in two distinct areas.
  • Collect abiotic and biotic data on weather, soil type, and species composition in two quadrats.
  • Interpret the relationship between habitats and observed species.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Record energy, trash, transportation, food, and water consumption for 48 hours.
  • Calculate an individual’s carbon footprint.
  • Apply lifestyle changes to minimize environmental impacts.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify and label the cellular structures of bacteria, animal, and plant cells.
  • Examine microscope slides of plant, animal, bacteria, and protist cells.
  • Categorize organisms as prokaryotic or eukaryotic based on cellular structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Germinate millet seeds under experimental conditions.
  • Measure respiration rates as a function of water displacement by germinated and dormant millet seeds.
  • Graphically analyze experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify three food samples by smell and/or taste.
  • Compare the ability to taste and smell between different individuals.
  • Relate experimental results to the interactions between the chemoreceptors for taste and smell.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Explain how dichotomous keys are used to identify organisms.
  • Use a dichotomous key to identify adult dragonflies to the family taxonomic level.
  • Create a dichotomous key for leaf types based on morphological observations.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure osmosis in living cells using potato sections and sugar solutions.
  • Analyze experimental data to classify solutions as hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic.
  • Examine the selective permeability of a membrane to molecules of different sizes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize the characteristics of five vertebrate classes.
  • Examine the skeletal structure of bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
  • Relate vertebrate structure to survival adaptations.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • List shared characteristics of animals that belong to phylum Arthropoda.
  • Compare and contrast external anatomical features of a garden spider (Argiope sp.), crayfish (Cambarus sp.), and the plains lubber grasshopper (Brachystola magna).
  • Dissect a crayfish and grasshopper and identify and label internal organs.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze research on a country to determine the amount, methods, and implications of deforestation occurring in the past 50 years.
  • Create a flowchart to show the causes and effects of deforestation.
  • Identify mitigation strategies for deforestation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model the processes of transcription and translation.
  • Construct a DNA molecule, mRNA strand, and a series of tRNA molecules.
  • Write the anti-codons and amino acids carried by tRNA for the synthesis of a protein.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze a series of photos for the stage of succession they represent.
  • Differentiate between primary and secondary succession initiators.
  • Relate ecological succession to a local ecosystem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate species richness and composition from plant survey diagrams.
  • Design a plant survey for a local ecosystem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate the specificity of lactase in reactions with milk and sucrose.
  • Analyze experimental data to determine the optimal pH and temperature ranges for lactase activity.
  • Relate experimental results to conditions within the human body.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize the structure of a double-stranded DNA molecule.
  • Isolate DNA from split peas by physically breaking down plant tissues, lysing cell membranes with detergent, and precipitating isolated DNA in alcohol.
  • Record observations of the appearance and volume of DNA extracted from peas.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create Punnett squares for genetic conditions including color blindness, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, and Huntington’s disease.
  • Interpret a series of pedigree charts and describe inheritance of hemophilia.
  • Read 4 karyotypes, diagnose genetic abnormalities, and describe phenotypes and genotypes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify positive and negative feedback and determine the stimulus, receptor, control center, effector, and response for various stimuli.
  • Test the body’s sensitivity to temperature through exposure to a series of water baths and various temperatures.
  • Collect and analyze data on heart rate during a series of exercises.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create Punnett squares for 10 traits.
  • Identify homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous alleles for common human traits.
  • Perform karyotyping on two sets of chromosomes to identify potential chromosomal disorders.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a Venn diagram to classify the characteristics of mammals.
  • Identify the major internal organs of a human and describe their functions.
  • Dissect a fetal pig and label key internal structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize the habitat, feeding, reproduction, and unique features of phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Rotifera, and Annelida.
  • Examine prepared slides of a budding Hydra, planarian, and rotifer.
  • Dissect a common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) from phylum Annelida and identify internal and external structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Dissect the sea star (Pisaster spp.), frog (Rana forreri), and perch (Pomadasys macracanthus) and identify the major organs of each animal.
  • Describe the function of organs identified through dissection.
  • Compare and contrast echinoderm and chordate structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Dissect a clam (Anodonta spp.) from phylum Mollusca and a grasshopper (Brachystoma spp.) from phylum Arthropoda.
  • Identify and label the internal features of a clam and grasshopper.
  • Relate internal and external structures of protostomes to their functions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe and compare the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of a monocot and dicot plant.
  • Examine prepared slides of root, stem, and leaf tissue of a monocot and dicot.
  • Relate internal and external structures of angiosperms to their functions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a generalized phylogenetic tree of plants and summarize the features of mosses, ferns, and conifers.
  • Examine the macroscopic and microscopic structures of a moss (Bryophyta).
  • Relate the morphology of confer reproductive structures to their functions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform measurements using a graduated cylinder, volumetric flask, graduated pipet, ruler, digital scale, beaker, and thermometer.
  • Apply Archimedes’ principle and the water displacement method to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object.
  • Create solutions of varying concentrations and densities by diluting a stock solution.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Collect and culture microbes from six household surfaces on agar slants.
  • Create and Gram stain four bacteria smears.
  • Relate experimental results to microbial diversity contained on fomites.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the total magnification and field of view for the lenses on an optical microscope.
  • Examine prepared slides under scanning, low, and high-power lenses.
  • Prepare wet-mount slides and practice staining technique.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize each step of mitosis.
  • Examine images of plant and animal cells undergoing mitosis.
  • Identify the different stages of mitosis in cells of an onion root tip and whitefish blastula.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create models to simulate the stages of mitosis and meiosis in an animal cell.
  • View microscope slides of plant and animal cells undergoing mitosis.
  • Identify the different stages of mitosis in plant and animal cells.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create codons for a specific protein sequence and identify codon mutations.
  • Perform gel electrophoresis using food coloring as DNA.
  • Analyze electrophoresis results to determine molecule size.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze and interpret EMGs (electromyographies) to view the results of coactivation and the effect of nerve stimulation on muscle twitch and summation.
  • Measure fatigue both quantitatively and qualitatively after performing forearm exercises.
  • Perform maximal vertical jump tests and compare results between stretch-shortening and non-stretch shortening cycles.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number and frequency of alleles and genotypes in a population.
  • Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to compare predicted and observed data.
  • Analyze and compare a population subjected to no agents of evolution and a population subjected to natural selection.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create monohybrid crosses for millet seed samples.
  • Examine corn for color and texture and design dihybrid crosses for the sample.
  • Analyze the distributions of genotypes from plat crosses with chi-square tests.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform a controlled experiment to investigate the role of carbon and light availability in photosynthesis.
  • Graphically analyze experimental data.
  • Design a novel study to investigate other variables influencing photosynthetic rates.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify and label the reproductive structures of a fresh flower.
  • Examine samples of pollen and ovules under the microscope.
  • Dissect an immature fruit and observe the structures of a developing seed.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine cross sections of living root and stem tissue with a hand lens and microscope.
  • Analyze the annual ring pattern of a woody plant stem.
  • Model transpiration with a celery stalk and colored water.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model population growth and graphically illustrate the data.
  • Relate population trends to resource constraints.
  • Calculate the probability of death within a cohort from cemetery data and graphically illustrate the results.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze four soil samples for pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium levels.
  • Examine the physical properties of soil samples, including weight and porosity.
  • Calculate the percentage of sand, silt, and clay in soil samples to determine the texture.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct an electrical circuit using a photovoltaic cell and digital multimeter.
  • Calculate wattage from voltage and amperage measurements.
  • Relate power output to tilt angle for a photovoltaic cell.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Conduct a controlled experiment germinating seeds in five salt concentrations.
  • Measure seedling growth for five days.
  • Relate experimental results to the effects of soil salinization in nature.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize the agents, incidence, symptoms, prevention, and treatment of six contagious diseases.
  • Model the transmission of a contagion using chemical substances.
  • Relate the transmission of infectious disease to common social practices.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize the characteristics of the 12 animal phyla.
  • Create a dichotomous key for identifying common household items.
  • Examine and identify five microbes using a dichotomous key.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Research evolutionary mechanisms for various given scenarios.
  • Identify the evolutionary processes at play for each scenario.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Dissect a barn owl pellet.
  • Use a dichotomous key to identify the rodent species present.
  • Relate owl diet to habitat characteristics.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model the effects of greenhouse gas concentrations on global average temperatures using a simulation.
  • Examine the effects of clouds on solar radiation, infrared radiation, and atmospheric temperatures.
  • Apply experimental results to predict future climate trends.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Diagram the hydrologic cycle, utilizing arrows and key terms.
  • Construct a simplified model of the hydrologic cycle to observe condensation, evaporation, and precipitation in a closed system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Compare the biotic and abiotic components of two ecosystems.
  • Examine an owl pellet and identify its contents.
  • Relate owl diet to habitat characteristics.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Summarize the habitat, feeding, mobility, and reproduction of bacteria, Daphnia, and Hydra.
  • Create two experimental microcosms and compare their inhabitants.
  • Examine living microbes under the microscope.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply the scientific method to demonstrate mass differences between carbon dioxide and dry air.
  • Model the effects of greenhouse gases on temperature using the scientific method.
  • Design a controlled experiment to investigate the effects of sea ice on ocean temperature.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply the scientific method to address 2 real-world problems.
  • Construct hypotheses and collect qualitative and quantitative data from systematic observations of 5 white, solid substances.
  • Design a controlled experiment, conduct observations, and draw conclusions about the identities of 3 unknown substances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the pH, phosphate, nitrate, and fecal coliform levels of three water samples.
  • Rank the water quality of bottled water, tap water, and a collected water sample.
  • Relate water quality to environmental sources of contamination.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate the properties of cohesion and adhesion in water and demonstrate how these properties contribute to surface tension and capillary action.
  • Extract the anthocyanin pigment from red cabbage to create pH strips.
  • Measure the pH of common household items with commercial and homemade indicators.
  • Investigate the effect of buffers on a living system by graphing pH changes for unbuffered and buffered solutions.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Classify 16 solutions as neutral, acidic, or basic using pH paper and bromothymol blue.
  • Use pH paper and bromothymol blue indicator to determine if an acid or a base neutralization reaction has occurred after mixing acids with bases.
  • Classify five household products as acids, bases, or neutral.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Assemble and describe a colorimeter.
  • Create four stock phosphate solutions to create a calibration curve that will be used in an assay.
  • Use a calibration curve to determine the phosphate concentration for three environmental samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform chemical reactions with silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid to describe six anions.
  • Perform flame tests to describe five cations.
  • Conduct confirmation tests to identify the anion and/or cation of five unknown chemicals.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform a back titration using a commercial antacid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide.
  • Determine the amount of acid an antacid is able to neutralize.
  • Validate experimental results by performing a controlled experiment.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create diagrams of common isotopes.
  • Relate atomic number and mass number.
  • Calculate atomic mass from isotope mass and abundance data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a colorimeter. Prepare eleven standard solutions with known concentrations of FD&C blue dye.
  • Create a Beer’s law plot with the standard solutions and the use of a colorimeter, and determine the concentration of FD&C red dye in two commercial drink samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build the structures of 14 macromolecules using a modeling kit.**
    ** There are two versions of this lab. Only one version offers this modeling kit.
  • Perform qualitative tests to determine the presence of lipids, sugars, proteins, and starch in a variety of samples.
  • Identify an unknown through its composition of macromolecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the volume-pressure relationship of a gas using a syringe apparatus.
  • Create scatter plots from experimental data to illustrate Boyle’s law and analyze data to determine atmospheric air pressure.
  • Calculate the constant k from Boyle’s law using experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build a hydrometer and prepare five reference solutions with known carbohydrate contents.
  • Create a hydrometer calibration curve from the five reference solutions.
  • Determine carbohydrate concentrations of three beverage samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build a rudimentary calorimeter and measure the caloric content of three foods.
  • Compare experimental data to nutrition labels found on the packaging of food items.
  • Calculate the estimated caloric content of foods based on the nutrition label and Atwater factors.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Add drops of four chemical compounds to aluminum foil, conduct observations, and draw conclusions about possible chemical reactions.
  • Perform fourteen chemical reactions using aqueous reactants and observe the final products.
  • Write balanced equations for observed chemical reactions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create chromatograms of seven food dyes.
  • Calculate Rf values for known and unknown solutions.
  • Analyze chromatogram data to identify the FD&C food dyes found in common food items.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe osmosis through a semipermeable membrane.
  • Use experimental data to compare hypotonic and hypertonic solutions.
  • Determine the freezing and boiling points of three solutions with varying salt concentrations and graph the results.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the equivalence point of the titration of a strong base (sodium hydroxide) with an unknown weak acid.
  • Create a pH titration curve using experimental data.
  • Calculate Ka for an unknown weak acid and determine the percent error.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform an EDTA/EBT titration with tap water.
  • Calculate the concentration of Ca2+ in a water sample.
  • Determine the average water hardness of the local water supply.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate how temperature and other factors impact dissolved oxygen levels in water.
  • Use Winkler’s solutions to analyze the amount of dissolved oxygen in water samples at different temperatures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw condensed structural formulas and line-angle formulas of organic compounds based on the IUPAC name.
  • Illustrate structural isomers based on organic compound molecular formulas.
  • Draw line-angle formulas and dash-wedge structures for geometric isomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a galvanic cell using filter paper, zinc and copper metals, solutions of zinc sulfate and copper sulfate, and glass beakers.
  • Set up and operate a multimeter and interpret voltage data.
  • Calculate the standard cell potential for a redox reaction.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a calorimeter.
  • Calculate the calories released per gram of two fuels: isopropyl alcohol and paraffin wax.
  • Compare the molecular structure and energy content of each fuel.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate Le Châtelier’s principle on chromate-dichromate equilibrium and on ferrocyanide-ferric ferrocyanide equilibrium by manipulating concentration and temperature.
  • Calculate the equilibrium constant (K) and reaction quotient (Q) of the chromate-dichromate reaction and a hypothetical reaction.
  • Apply Le Châtelier’s principle to explain observed changes in a chemical system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Isolate casein from milk using both an acid and an enzyme, and use biuret reagent to test for the presence of casein.
  • Calculate the percent of casein present in samples of cheese curds made from three different solutions.
  • Synthesize cream cheese from milk.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Write the names of organic compounds and their functional groups.
  • Identify and draw organic compounds containing functional groups.
  • Use the IUPAC name to identify functional groups in organic compounds.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a calorimeter and measure change in enthalpy for two reactions: sodium hydroxide/ hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide/ ammonium chloride.
  • Create a cooling trend graph from calorimeter data for both reactions.
  • Predict change in enthalpy for a reaction of ammonia and hydrochloric acid using experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Outline 6 common NSAIDs, their uses, and biochemical pathways.
  • Perform a hydrolysis reaction with aspirin and water using iron(III) chloride to determine the presence of phenols.
  • Compare the purity of freshly powdered aspirin to powdered aspirin exposed to the air for 12 hours.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Produce a series of gases and monitor their behavior in the presence of a flame.
  • Expose a series of gases to calcium hydroxide and bromothymol blue and record observations.
  • Analyze experimental results to identify the gases present in exhaled air.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the physical properties of common household items including the appearance, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.
  • Identify compounds as ionic or molecular based on physical properties.
  • Calculate atomic mass from isotope mass and abundance data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a schematic for the periodic table to designate the groups of elements.
  • Research the physical and chemical properties of element groups.
  • Determine the group name and number of a set of elements based on their properties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform measurements using a graduated cylinder, volumetric flask, graduated pipet, ruler, digital scale, beaker, and thermometer.
  • Apply Archimedes’ principle and the water displacement method to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object.
  • Create solutions of varying concentrations and densities by diluting a stock solution.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine a series of six reactions between sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid to illustrate the concept of limiting reactants and test the law of conservation of mass.
  • Calculate the theoretical yield of the product carbon dioxide from the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Predict the presence of proteins in six substances.
  • Use biuret reagent to detect peptide bonds in six substances.
  • Validate experimental results with nutritional data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Predict the presence of lipids in five substances.
  • Use Sudan III to detect lipids in five substances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use Benedict’s reagent to detect reducing sugars in nine substances.
  • Use IKI indicator to detect starch in nine substances.
  • Break down starch into maltose using α-amylase.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number of moles and atoms of each of the elements present in 3 items.
  • Design and conduct an experiment to determine the number of calcium atoms that are required to write your name with a piece of chalk.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Write numbers in scientific and standard notation.
  • Solve unit conversion problems and simple algebraic equations.
  • Create and analyze graphs.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the melting points of pure tetracosane, 1-tetradecanol, and a mixture of the 2 compounds.
  • Create a graph of the melting point data to determine the eutectic temperature and estimate the percent composition of the compounds present in the mixture.
  • Relate experimental data to molecular properties influencing melting points.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number of moles and atoms present in three weighed samples.
  • Determine the moles of water released by hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate.
  • Analyze experimental data to determine the empirical formula of a sample of hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw Lewis structures for 20 molecules.
  • Build a VSEPR model for each molecule with a molecular modeling kit.
  • Diagram resonance structures and classify molecules as linear, bent trigonal planar, trigonal pyramidal, tetrahedral, bipyramidal, or octahedral.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Review the periodic table and study common polyatomic ions, strong acids, and diatomic elements.
  • Write the names of ionic, molecular, polyatomic, and acidic compounds by interpreting chemical formulas.
  • Determine the chemical formulas of ionic, molecular, polyatomic, and acidic compounds by interpreting their names.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Recite the rules for naming organic compounds.
  • Interpret chemical structures to name the organic compounds they represent.
  • Draw the chemical structures of hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons by interpreting their names.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform eight reactions and conduct scientific observations to describe chemical changes.
  • Investigate the results of heating an object and burning an object using magnesium, mossy zinc, copper(II) carbonate, and copper(II) nitrate.
  • Compare the heating and burning of chemicals.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Elicit a redox reaction by adding a solution containing silver ions to elemental copper.
  • Write an equation that describes the movement of electrons during a redox reaction.
  • Observe reactions of copper, lead, and zinc to create an activity series.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Extract anthocyanin pigment from red cabbage to create pH strips.
  • Determine the pH of 12 solutions using commercial and homemade pH indicators.
  • Categorize solutions as acids, bases, or neutral.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build and calibrate a diffraction grating spectroscope.
  • Use the spectroscope to view the spectra of various light sources and identify continuous versus line spectra.
  • Calculate frequency from wavelength for seven emission lines.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Conduct reactions with varying reactant concentrations and calculate reaction rates.
  • Generate reaction rate data to determine the rate law for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate.
  • Summarize the rate law based on a performed chemical reaction and calculate k for a given rate law.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Separate a mixture into four components using the properties of solubility and magnetism.
  • Calculate the percent composition of each substance present in a mixture of solids.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a solubility curve for aqueous ammonium chloride and compare to the published solubility curve of sodium chloride.
  • Determine the solubility and miscibility of five compounds.
  • Infer the polarity of a molecule based on its miscibility in water.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Prepare a concentrated sugar solution and calculate the concentration using volume percent.
  • Use this stock solution to make four dilutions.
  • Make observations regarding the physical properties of the dilutions and calculate the concentration of each solution.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the melting point of tetradecanol.
  • Measure temperature and create a heating curve to determine the melting point and boiling point of water.
  • Immerse zinc metal in hydrochloric acid to produce a gas that will be tested by exposing a small amount of the gas to a flame.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of simple hydrocarbons, aromatics, aldehydes, and ketones using a modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models and identify structural isomers.
  • Relate structural formulas to three-dimensional molecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of geometric and optical isomers using a modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models to identify stereoisomers.
  • Relate molecular arrangements to the chemical properties of stereoisomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use stoichiometry to determine the amount of reactant needed to create the maximum amount of product in a precipitation reaction.
  • Perform a precipitation reaction and measure the precipitate.
  • Calculate the percent yield of a precipitation reaction and compare the value to the theoretical yield.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Synthesize 4 soaps from plant oils by performing saponification reactions.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of synthesized soaps in distilled and hard water.
  • Compare the performance of soaps and a commercial detergent in experimental conditions and relate findings to chemical properties of the oils, including saturation and polarity.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply titration techniques on a sample of commercial vinegar using sodium hydroxide.
  • Calculate the molar concentration and percent concentration of acetic acid in commercial vinegar.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Test the effectiveness of three commercial sunscreens using ultraviolet-sensitive beads.
  • Compare the effectiveness of active ingredients classified as chemical agents versus physical agents.
  • Synthesize two sunscreens with varying concentrations of zinc oxide and test their effectiveness.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create an acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution.
  • Evaluate buffering capacity in response to additions of concentrated and dilute acids and bases.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply the scientific method to address two real-world problems.
  • Construct hypotheses and collect qualitative and quantitative data from systematic observations of five white, solid substances.
  • Design a controlled experiment, conduct observations, and draw conclusions about the identities of three unknown substances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate the properties of cohesion and adhesion in water and demonstrate how these properties contribute to surface tension and capillary action.
  • Extract the anthocyanin pigment from red cabbage to create pH strips.
  • Measure the pH of common household items with commercial and homemade indicators.
  • Investigate the effect of buffers on a living system by graphing pH changes for unbuffered and buffered solutions.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model acid deposition using nitrogen oxides and bromocresol green.
  • Examine how a buffer affects acid deposition.
  • Model the effects of acid deposition on different types of rock.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Distinguish renewable energy from alternative energy and discuss examples of each.
  • Review and compare energy profiles of two U.S. states and draw conclusions about production and consumption.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Assemble a simple colorimeter.
  • Create a calibration curve using the colorimeter to measure resistance of stock phosphate solutions of known concentrations.
  • Use the calibration curve to calculate phosphate concentrations in water samples from a waste-water treatment plant, farm stream, and a collected sample from the local environment.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Prepare 1 m2 quadrats in two distinct areas.
  • Collect abiotic and biotic data on weather, soil type, and species composition in two quadrats.
  • Interpret the relationship between habitats and observed species.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Record energy, transportation, food and water consumption for 48 hours.
  • Calculate an individual’s carbon footprint.
  • Apply lifestyle changes to minimize environmental impacts.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze research on a country to determine the amount, methods, and implications, of deforestation occurring in the past 50 years.
  • Create a flowchart to show the causes and effects of deforestation.
  • Identify mitigation strategies for deforestation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the concentration of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in a water sample obtained from their home.
  • Perform a titration of the water sample using EDTA and EBT as an indicator.
  • Calculate the level of water hardness and concentration of CaCO3 in their water source.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate how temperature and other factors impact dissolved oxygen levels in water.
  • Use Winkler’s solutions to analyze the amount of dissolved oxygen in water samples at different temperatures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze a series of photos for the stage of succession they represent.
  • Identify primary and secondary succession initiators.
  • Relate ecological succession to your local ecosystem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Assemble a calorimeter and measure the heat produced from two different types of fuels.
  • Calculate the energy content of isopropyl alcohol and paraffin wax by burning the fuels and measuring temperature change.
  • Compare the molecular structure and energy content of each fuel.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate species richness and composition from plant survey diagrams.
  • Design a plant survey for a local ecosystem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Describe terms associated with the hydrologic cycle, including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and transpiration.
  • Diagram the hydrologic cycle, utilizing arrows and key terms.
  • Construct a simplified model of the hydrologic cycle to observe condensation, evaporation, and precipitation in a closed system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform measurements using a graduated cylinder, volumetric flask, graduated pipet, ruler, digital scale, beaker, and thermometer.
  • Apply Archimedes’ Principle and the water displacement method to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object.
  • Create solutions of varying concentrations and densities by diluting a stock solution.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number and frequency of alleles and genotypes in a population.
  • Use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to compare predicted and observed data.
  • Analyze and compare a population subjected to no agents of evolution and a population subjected to natural selection.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform a controlled experiment to investigate the role of carbon and light availability in photosynthesis.
  • Graphically analyze experimental data.
  • Design a novel study to investigate other variables influencing photosynthetic rates.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Explore the concepts of population ecology and how density-independent and density-dependent variables affect population growth.
  • Model exponential population growth and relate population trends to resource constraints.
  • Calculate the probability of death using data collected from a cemetery.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze the pH, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium levels of three provided soil samples.
  • Measure the bulk density, porosity, and permeability of four soil samples.
  • Categorize soil samples based on texture.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct an electrical circuit using a photovoltaic cell and digital multimeter.
  • Calculate wattage from voltage and amperage measurements.
  • Relate power output to tilt angle for a photovoltaic cell.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Conduct a controlled experiment germinating seeds in five salt concentrations.
  • Measure seedling growth for five days.
  • Relate experimental results to the effects of soil salinization in nature.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Dissect a barn owl pellet.
  • Use a dichotomous key to identify the rodent species present.
  • Relate owl diet to habitat characteristics.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model the effects of greenhouse gas concentrations on global average temperatures using a simulation.
  • Examine the effects of clouds on solar radiation, infrared radiation, and atmospheric temperatures.
  • Apply experimental results to predict future climate trends.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Compare the biotic and abiotic components of two ecosystems.
  • Examine an owl pellet and identify its contents.
  • Relate owl diet to habitat characteristics.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the pH, phosphate, nitrate, and fecal coliform levels of three water samples.
  • Rank the water quality of bottled water, tap water, and a collected water sample.
  • Relate water quality to environmental sources of contamination.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze the macroscopic characteristics of glass.
  • Distinguish between fracture patterns of glass.
  • Calculate the density of a sample of broken glass.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze fiber samples using macroscopic and microscopic techniques.
  • Identify hair samples as human or from other animals.
  • Evaluate how paint can be used as evidence.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Describe the chemical and physical properties of soils.
  • Differentiate soils based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics.
  • Categorize soils based on chemical analysis.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Discuss the chemistry of combustion, including the fire triangle.
  • Explain the classification of arson accelerants.
  • Match hypothetical crime scene chromatograms against a chromatogram database.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform counts of ridges of loop prints.
  • Categorize prints with more than one delta.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Sketch a crime scene using the baseline and triangulation methods.
  • Examine, document, and collect evidence.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Discuss the chemistry of most common explosives.
  • Perform chemical tests for the presence/absence of ions commonly found in explosive residues.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Explore how chemical methods of latent detection work.
  • Study how chemical methods differ from one another.
  • Perform cyanoacrylate, ninhydrin, and iodine fuming (IKI) techniques.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Describe the components of a fingerprint and explain the meaning of a latent fingerprint.
  • Dust for and lift fingerprints.
  • Discuss whether fingerprints are really prints and do all people have fingerprints.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Discuss Locard’s principle and its implications for forensic science.
  • Model the transfer of potential evidence items to a crime scene from a suspect.
  • Construct the reverse transfer of potential evidence from a crime scene to a suspect.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Describe the parts of a compound microscope and how they are used.
  • Identify the differences between a dissecting microscope, compound microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope.
  • Observe specimens with a microscope.
  • Prepare and stain a wet mount slide.
  • Calculate the power of magnification and field of view with objective lenses.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the volume of chemical required to saturate a solution, and describe why saturation is necessary to grow crystals.
  • Compare the growth patterns and shapes of magnesium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and copper (II) sulfate crystals.
  • Test the effects of temperature on crystal growth and shape.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze current earthquake and volcanic activity as related to tectonic plates.
  • Calculate the location of an epicenter from seismograph data.
  • Evaluate soil types and moisture levels to assess earthquake hazards.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Research, explore, and observe local geology.
  • Apply conceptual knowledge to field investigations.
  • Prepare a report documenting field trip activities and findings.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Conduct formal observations of ten igneous rock specimens.
  • Identify igneous rocks by texture, MCI, and mineral content.
  • Relate igneous rock structure to rock forming processes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Graph the distance between the planets of our solar system from the Sun and the orbit duration.
  • Predict the orbit duration of three dwarf planets based on the graphed trends of the planets.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Analyze the length and area of features on a USGS quadrangle map.
  • Calculate the longitude and latitude of features on a USGS quadrangle map.
  • Relate map measurements to geographic ground distances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify metamorphic rocks by foliation, grain size, and mineralogy.
  • Relate metamorphic rock structure to rock forming processes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the crystal form, hardness, streak, cleavage, fracture, and reaction to acid for a set of unknown minerals.
  • Calculate the density and specific gravity for a set of mineral samples.
  • Interpret experimental results to identify a set of mineral samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model the movements of tectonic plates.
  • Relate digital map features to tectonic plate boundaries.
  • Infer plate movements from digital map characteristics.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model radioactive decay through coin tosses.
  • Research the half-life, daughter isotope(s), and decay type of a radioactive element.
  • Create graphs of half-life trends and of the relationship between time and percentage of parent isotopes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the elevations of features on a topographic map.
  • Calculate the gradients of slopes represented on a topographic map.
  • Create a topographic profile from a section of a USGS quadrangle map.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate stream gradients using a topographic map.
  • Outline drainage basins on a topographic map.
  • Compare the porosity and permeability of three soil materials.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Conduct formal observations of ten sedimentary rock specimens.
  • Examine texture, grain size, reaction to acid, angularity, sphericity, and composition to identify a set of sedimentary rocks.
  • Examine the effects of weathering on the mass and appearance of sedimentary rocks.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform confirmation tests in the form of chemical reactions to identify anions.
  • Perform confirmation tests in the form of flame tests to identify cations.
  • Interpret data to identify cations and anions in unknown ionic compounds.
  • Identify the unique characteristics of anions and cations.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build a hydrometer.
  • Prepare solutions of known sugar concentrations to use to create a calibration curve of hydrometer measurements.
  • Determine sugar concentrations of soft drinks and juices by comparing hydrometer measurements to a calibration curve.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a rudimentary calorimeter and use it to determine the energy content of three foods.
  • Calculate the energy content of the three foods based on the heat released during burning.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create chromatograms of various food dyes and common food items using paper chromatography.
  • Calculate Rf values for known and unknown solutions.
  • Analyze chromatogram data to identify unknown dyes in common food items.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe and describe the process of osmosis through a semi-permeable membrane.
  • Determine the molecular mass of a compound using osmotic pressure data.
  • Examine how the freezing and boiling points of solutions change as a result of the amount of solute present.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw bond-line structures of organic compounds using the IUPAC name.
  • Illustrate organic-compound structural isomers based on molecular formulas.
  • Draw bond-line structures, including dash and wedge structures for geometric isomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate the specificity of lactase in reactions with milk and sucrose.
  • Analyze experimental data to determine the optimal pH and temperature ranges for lactase activity.
  • Relate experimental results to conditions within the human body.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform chemical equilibrium reactions and manipulate chemical systems through concentration and temperature.
  • Perform calculations to determine the equilibrium constant (K).
  • Apply Le Chatelier’s principle to predict changes and explain observed changes in a chemical system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Isolate DNA from split peas by physically breaking down plant tissues, lysing cell membranes with detergent, and precipitating isolated DNA in alcohol.
  • Record observations of the appearance and volume of DNA extracted from peas.
  • List the four nitrogenous bases of DNA and describe base-pairing.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Outline common NSAIDs by identifying brand names, whether each drug is available only by prescription, typical uses, and which forms of the enzyme cyclooxygenase are inhibited by the drug.
  • Perform a hydrolysis reaction with acetylsalicylic acid and water.
  • Test for the presence of salicylic acid using iron (III) chloride.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform flame and chemical tests on isolated gases from controlled experiments.
  • Categorize gases produced in experimental reactions.
  • Analyze experimental results to identify unknown gases.
  • Demonstrate Charles’ Law.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform measurements using a graduated cylinder, volumetric flask, graduated pipet, ruler, digital scale, beaker, and thermometer.
  • Apply Archimedes’ Principle and the water displacement method to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object.
  • Calculate experimental error.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Predict the presence of proteins in six substances.
  • Use biuret reagent to detect peptide bonds in six substances.
  • Validate experimental results with nutritional data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Test substances for the presence of reducing sugars and starches.
  • Use a digestive enzyme to break down a starch into monosaccharides.
  • Analyze the chemical differences and similarities between sugars and artificial sweeteners.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Write numbers in scientific and standard notation.
  • Solve unit conversion problems and simple algebraic equations.
  • Create and analyze graphs.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply how the properties of a molecule affect melting point to predict the greater melting range between tetracosane and 1-tetradecanol.
  • Determine the melting point of tetracosane and 1-tetradecanol.
  • Measure the melting point of a mixture of two compounds.
  • Relate the properties influencing melting points to experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Extract starch from malted barley.
  • Calculate alcohol by volume.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw Lewis structures for molecules.
  • Create VSEPR models of molecules with molecular modeling kits.
  • Use the periodic table to identify number of valence electrons of elements.
  • Diagram resonance structures.
  • Classify the VSEPR of a molecule.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Generate a colored periodic table to distinguish between the groups of elements.
  • Write the names for ionic compounds, molecular compounds, polyatomic ions, and acids by interpreting their formulas.
  • Write the formulas for ionic compounds, molecular compounds, polyatomic ions, and acids by interpreting their formulas.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform a series of chemical reactions.
  • Make scientific observations and use them to make scientific conclusions.
  • Distinguish between heating and burning and demonstrate each.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform single displacement reactions on metals to develop an activity series.
  • Write chemical equations for redox reactions based on experimental results.
  • Apply the appropriate rules for assigning oxidation numbers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Label hydrogen bond donor and acceptors on alcohol-containing molecules.
  • Measure the solubility of seven alcohols in water and oil.
  • Relate molecular structure to the boiling points of two alcohols.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the effects of varying reactant concentrations in chemical reactions.
  • Analyze data to determine the order of a reaction.
  • Summarize the rate law for an observed reaction.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate separation techniques involving solubility and magnetism.
  • Determine the pure substances that comprise a mixture of solids.
  • Calculate the percent composition of each pure substance that is present in a mixture of solids.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of simple hydrocarbons, aromatics, aldehydes, and ketones using a molecular modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models to identify structural isomers.
  • Relate structural formulas to three-dimensional molecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of geometric and optical isomers with a molecular modeling.
  • Compare molecular models to identify stereoisomers.
  • Relate molecular arrangements to the physical and chemical properties of stereoisomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use stoichiometry to determine the amount of reactant needed to create the maximum amount of product in a precipitation reaction.
  • Perform a precipitation reaction and measure the precipitate.
  • Calculate the percent yield of a precipitation reaction and compare the value to the theoretical yield.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Synthesize four soaps from plant oils by performing saponification reactions.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of synthesized soaps in distilled and hard water.
  • Compare the performance of soaps and a commercial detergent in experimental conditions and relate findings to chemical properties of the oils, including saturation and polarity.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use the IUPAC system to name a series of esters.
  • Synthesize fragrant esters by reacting a series of carboxylic acids and alcohols.
  • Relate the aroma and solubility of esters to their chemical structures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number of moles, molecules, and atoms of a substance.
  • Calculate the number of moles of water released by a hydrate.
  • Determine the empirical formula of the hydrate from the formula of the anhydrous compound and experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply titration techniques to investigate acetic acid in commercial vinegar.
  • Determine the molar concentration of acetic acid in commercial vinegar.
  • Calculate the average concentration and the percent concentrations (%) of acetic acid in vinegar.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create an acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution.
  • Test a buffer solution by the addition of acids and bases.
  • Evaluate buffering capacity in response to additions of concentrated and diluted acids and bases.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Test S. epidermidis for susceptibility to three antibiotics.
  • Measure zones of inhibition on a Kirby Bauer diffusion plate.
  • Microscopically examine the reproductive structures of Penicillium.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create dilution series for an antiseptic and for a disinfectant in nutrient broth.
  • Calculate dilution factors.
  • Determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of mouthwash and bleach for S. cerevisiae growth in liquid media.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply aseptic technique to transfer microbes between media forms.
  • Examine microbial growth on solid and liquid media.
  • Create pure cultures of E. coli, S. epidermidis, and S. cerevisiae and isolate individual colonies.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Culture a series of microbes on tryptic soy, MacConkey, and EMB agars.
  • Compare colony morphology and color between E. coli, S. epidermidis, and unidentified microbes growing on selective and differential media.
  • Analyze experimental results to determine metabolic pathways of microbes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate dilution factors
  • Create a series of dilutions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
  • Identify viable plates from  a series of developed S. cerevisiae colonies
  • Compute the CFU/ml of microbes from an original sample

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply aseptic technique to inoculate motility agar tubes with E. coli and S. epidermidis.
  • Differentiate between positive and negative growth patterns in motility agar.
  • Analyze experimental results to determine metabolic pathways of microbes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create smears using direct and negative staining techniques.
  • Prepare Gram stains from E. coli, S. epidermidis, and S. cerevisiae cultures.
  • Compare simple and differential stained specimens using microscopy.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply aseptic technique to inoculate fructose, glucose, and mannitol broths with S. epidermidis and S. cerevisiae.
  • Differentiate between positive and negative growth results using phenol red indicator and Durham tubes.
  • Analyze experimental results to determine metabolic pathways of microbes.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply aseptic technique to inoculate MR-VP broths with E. coli and S. epidermidis.
  • Differentiate between positive and negative test results using methyl red and Barritt’s reagents.
  • Use hydrogen peroxide to perform catalase testing on E. coli and S. epidermidis.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform salt tolerance and pH testing on S. cerevisiae and S. epidermidis 
  • Relate experimental results to environments where microbes occur

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Collect microbes from household surfaces and culture them on solid media.
  • Observe the morphology and abundance of cultured microbes.
  • Simulate the transmission of an infectious disease using chemical substances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Collect microbes from fresh food sources and culture them on solid media.
  • Observe the morphology and abundance of cultured microbes.
  • Analyze experimental results to determine the effectiveness of food storage and preparation methods.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Collect microbes from washed and unwashed hands and culture them on solid media.
  • Prepare Gram stains from isolated colonies and view with a microscope.
  • Analyze experimental results to determine the effectiveness of hand washing.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a calendar for managing microbiology assignment due dates.
  • Select an incubation site for culturing microbes.
  • Apply microbiology safety protocols to provided scenarios.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the total magnification and field of view for the lenses of an optical microscope.
  • Examine prepared slides of common microbes under a series of lenses.
  • Prepare and observe wet mounts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Collect microbes from the body and household environment and culture them on solid media.
  • Apply streak plate techniques to isolate individual colonies.
  • Compare the morphology and abundance of cultured microbes collected from various locations.
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By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • Describe chromatography and how it is used to identify unknown mixtures.
  • Discuss the different types of chromatography and their applications.
  • Explain how paper chromatography is used to separate compounds.
  • Define Rf (Retention factor) values. Describe FD&C dyes and their uses.
  • Create chromatograms of various food dyes and common food items using paper chromatography.
  • Calculate Rf values for known and unknown solutions.
  • Analyze chromatogram data to identify unknown dyes in common food items.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Define chromatography, mobile phase and stationary phase.
    • Explain column chromatography and its application.
    • Discuss how UV-Vis spectrometry can be used to determine food dye concentration.
    • Isolate two food dyes in grape soda using column chromatography.
    • Analyze red and blue food dye fractions using a colorimeter.
    • Determine the concentration of isolated red and blue food dye from grape soda

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw bond-line structures of organic compounds using the IUPAC name.
  • Illustrate organic-compound structural isomers based on molecular formulas.
  • Draw bond-line structures, including dash and wedge structures for geometric isomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Explain the Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry.
    • Describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and concentration on the chemical system of a reaction.
    • Define chemical equilibrium, chemical system, equilibrium constant, and Le Châtelier’s principle.
    • Practice green chemistry techniques to demonstrate Le Châtelier’s Principle.
    • Manipulate temperature and pH on two chemical systems.
    • Apply Le Châtelier’s principle to predict and explain changes in a chemical system.

By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • Describe the biochemical role of aspirin and other NSAIDs in the body.
  • Define the roles of the enzyme cyclooxygenase and prostaglandins in the body.
  • Identify commercially-available NSAIDs and their uses.
  • Discriminate between drugs that are nonselective COX inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors.
  • Define hydrolysis and condensation and apply these to the reactions involved in the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid.
  • Outline common NSAIDs by identifying brand names, whether each drug is available only by prescription, typical uses, and which forms of the enzyme cyclooxygenase are inhibited by the drug.
  • Perform a hydrolysis reaction with acetylsalicylic acid and water.
  • Test for the presence of salicylic acid using iron(III) chloride.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Define infrared radiation and spectroscopy.
    • Relate vibrational energy to organic functional groups.
    • Explain how to assign peaks to functional groups.
    • Describe how to solve an infrared spectrum.
    • Label peaks on infrared spectra. Determine functional groups present in spectra.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Describe caffeine and its natural sources.
    • Describe phase changes.
    • Describe crystallization.
    • Explain chemical extraction.
    • Extract caffeine from a mixture.
    • Purify caffeine by sublimation.
    • Determine the percent isolation of caffeine.

By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • Identify carbohydrates and describe their general structure and molecular formula.
  • Define monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, and reducing sugar.
  • Explain the differences between artificial sweeteners and sugar.
  • Describe how Benedict’s reagent and IKI indicator can be used to detect the presence of simple sugars and starches.
  • Test substances for the presence of reducing sugars and starches.
  • Use a digestive enzyme to break down a starch into monosaccharides.
  • Analyze the chemical differences and similarities between sugars and artificial sweeteners.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply how the properties of a molecule affect melting point to predict the greater melting range between tetracosane and 1-tetradecanol.
  • Determine the melting point of tetracosane and 1-tetradecanol.
  • Measure the melting point of a mixture of two compounds.
  • Relate the properties influencing melting points to experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Describe spectrometry.
    • Define nuclear magnetic resonance, spin-spin coupling, and chemical shift.
    • Interpret the integration, multiplicity, and degrees of unsaturation in a spectrum.
    • Label multiplicity and number of hydrogens in a spectrum.
    • Recognize and label common functional group NMR patterns.
    • Determine molecular structure based on provided spectra

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Define monomer, polymer, and plasticizer.
    • Explain how monomer structure affects the properties of a polymer.
    • Define plasticizers and explain how they affect flexibility in polymers.
    • Synthesize a polymer from polyvinyl acetate glue and sodium tetraborate.
    • Compare the physical properties of synthesized polymers.
    • Measure the effects of a plasticizer on two polymers.

By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • Classify types of alcohols.
  • Identify reaction types for alcohols.
  • Explain boiling point trends for alcohols.
  • Describe functional group polarity and its relationship to solubility.
  • Classify reactions involving alcohols.
  • Measure the solubility of seven alcohols in water and oil.
  • Relate molecular structure to the boiling points of two alcohols.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Define solubility, recrystallization and extraction.
    • Explain how acids and bases change the solubility of organic compounds.
    • Describe methods of extraction.
    • Analyze the solubility of solids in different solvents.
    • Relate experimental results to the polarity of the compound.
    • Evaluate the relationship between temperature and solubility.
    • Examine how acids and bases change the solubility of organic molecules in aqueous solutions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of simple hydrocarbons, aromatics, aldehydes, and ketones using a molecular modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models to identify structural isomers.
  • Relate structural formulas to three-dimensional molecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of geometric and optical isomers using a modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models to identify stereoisomers.
  • Relate molecular arrangements to the chemical properties of stereoisomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Synthesize four soaps from plant oils by performing saponification reactions.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of synthesized soaps in distilled and hard water.
  • Compare the performance of soaps and a commercial detergent in experimental conditions and relate findings to chemical properties of the oils, including saturation and polarity.

By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • Define esters as an organic functional group.
  • Discuss physical properties of esters.
  • Describe the IUPAC naming system for esters.
  • Use the IUPAC system to name a series of esters.
  • Synthesize fragrant esters by reacting a series of carboxylic acids and alcohols.
  • Relate the aroma and solubility of esters to their chemical structures.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct free-body diagrams.
  • Test the effects of different projectile properties on motion using a simulation.
  • Calculate drag and terminal velocity for several objects with different properties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct free-body diagrams.
  • Test the effects of different projectile properties on motion using a simulation.
  • Calculate drag and terminal velocity for several objects with different properties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use a syringe apparatus to determine the relationship between gas and pressure and volume.
  • Graph experimental data to illustrate Boyle’s law.
  • Solve a series of pressure and volume problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the periods of rotating masses using an apparatus and a simulation.
  • Calculate the centripetal force acting on a spinning object.
  • Compare theoretical to experimental values.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the periods of rotating masses using an apparatus and a simulation.
  • Calculate the centripetal force acting on a spinning object.
  • Compare theoretical to experimental values.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the transfer of momentum between marbles.
  • Calculate the conservation of momentum in one dimension.
  • Solve a series of motion problems by applying the conservation of momentum theorem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the transfer of momentum between marbles.
  • Calculate the conservation of momentum in one dimension.
  • Solve a series of motion problems by applying the conservation of momentum theorem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate contact forces acting on various objects.
  • Create freebody diagrams and graphs of these forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate contact forces acting on various objects.
  • Create freebody diagrams and graphs of these forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe the interference pattern produced by passing a red laser beam through a diffraction grating.
  • Measure the lines per millimeter for transmission diffraction grating.
  • Calculate the wavelength of red light using a diffraction grating.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the time constant and total charge of a capacitor.
  • Examine the current in a charging capacitor using a multimeter.
  • Analyze the effects of plate separation on capacitance using the simulation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure electric potential using a digital multimeter and conductive paper.
  • Visualize electric fields and equipotential lines using a simulation.
  • Calculate electric field strength and direction from electric potential.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Predict maximum velocity and initial position using energy in a simulation.
  • Calculate energy loss due to friction.
  • Apply the law of conservation of energy to solve problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the focal length of a converging lens.
  • Calculate the magnification of two converging lenses using the thin-lens equation.
  • Use ray tracing to determine the image distance viewed through a converging lens.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure static and kinetic friction forces.
  • Calculate coefficients of friction and the maximum angle of repose.
  • Determine relationships between friction, surface area, and normal force.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the spring constant of a spring.
  • Use simulations to model spring constants combined in parallel and in series.
  • Predict the relationship between spring potential energy and spring constant.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the spring constant of a spring.
  • Use simulations to model spring constants combined in parallel and in series.
  • Predict the relationship between spring potential energy and spring constant.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Correlate a real-world scenario with the steps of the scientific method.
  • Compare and contrast scientific law and theory and create a Venn diagram to illustrate attributes of each.
  • Classify and explain real-world examples of hypotheses, laws, theories, and opinions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Correlate a real-world scenario with the steps of the scientific method.
  • Compare and contrast scientific law and theory and create a Venn diagram to illustrate attributes of each.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform a simple acceleration experiment and collect data with student-supplied household materials.
  • Calculate percent error and percent uncertainty.
  • Relate experimental error to measuring devices and techniques.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create motion diagrams and graphs.
  • Determine position, velocity, and acceleration from graphs.
  • Calculate acceleration of objects on level surfaces and inclines.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Generate magnetic fields using bar magnets.
  • Trace and analyze fields for shape and direction.
  • Determine the relative strength of magnetic fields at different locations.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Write numbers using scientific notation.
  • Solve unit conversion and basic algebra problems.
  • Create graphs from datasets.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use Vernier Calipers to measure a marble and solid cylinder.
  • Calculate volume and density.
  • Relate density to composition.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify net forces for a variety of scenarios.
  • Apply Newton’s laws.
  • Sketch examples to illustrate relevant forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Identify net forces for a variety of scenarios.
  • Apply Newton’s laws.
  • Sketch examples to illustrate relevant forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Graph inverse-square force data.
  • Relate how inverse-square forces influence interactions between objects.
  • Apply the right-hand rule to predict magnetic field deflections.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a simple circuit.
  • Measure voltage and current with a multimeter.
  • Apply Ohm’s law to calculate the resistance of a circuit.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe the polarization of light from three sources.
  • Determine the polarization axis of polarizing filters.
  • Graphically reproduce Malus’ law.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Solve problems using kinematic equations.
  • Graph position and velocity in two dimensions.
  • Relate horizontal and vertical position to velocity and acceleration using a simulation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Solve problems using kinematic equations.
  • Graph position and velocity in two dimensions.
  • Relate horizontal and vertical position to velocity and acceleration using a simulation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Solve a series of problems by applying addition, multiplication, division, power operators, and derivatives to measured values in order to calculate propagated uncertainties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Solve a series of problems by applying addition, multiplication, division, power operators, and derivatives to measured values in order to calculate propagated uncertainties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct pulley systems to lift various masses.
  • Compare the efficiency of single and compound pulley systems.
  • Calculate the mechanical advantage of different pulley systems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct pulley systems to lift various masses.
  • Compare the efficiency of single and compound pulley systems.
  • Calculate the mechanical advantage of different pulley systems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Model radioactive decay.
  • Create graphs of half-life trend.
  • Predict parent and daughter isotopes over time.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use a plane mirror to test the law of reflection.
  • Trace reflecting light rays.
  • Measure the image distance of a reflected object.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the index of refraction for a glass slab using Snell’s law and graphical analyses.
  • Calculate the critical angles of materials using a simulation.
  • Determine the index of refraction using the critical angle of several materials.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure current, voltage, and resistance of circuits.
  • Compute equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel and in series.
  • Relate the visual intensity of light bulbs to the power produced in the electrical circuit.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure sound waves using a resonance tube.
  • Calculate the speed of sound from experimental data.
  • Apply the relationship between velocity, frequency, and wavelength to solve a series of problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe the effects of varying the mass, length, and amplitude on the period of a pendulum.
  • Calculate acceleration due to gravity.
  • Evaluate the potential and kinetic energy of a pendulum.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a simple calorimeter.
  • Calculate the specific heat capacity of two metal objects.
  • Compare theoretical to experimental values of specific heat.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use the applied forces of washers and spring scales on a ruler to calculate the torques about pivot points.
  • Compare experimental results to theoretical values.
  • Use a simulation to determine the mass of an unknown object by balancing torques.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use the applied forces of washers and spring scales on a ruler to calculate the torques about pivot points.
  • Compare experimental results to theoretical values.
  • Use a simulation to determine the mass of an unknown object by balancing torques.
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