Course Builder

Chemistry

Mix and match any of the lessons below to customize your own Chemistry course syllabus. 

Learn more about our Chemistry Kits HERE.

Investigate the structure, properties, and transformation of matter with our engaging chemistry lessons. Classic experiences include observing and describing chemical reactions, building molecular models, performing titrations, and identifying unknown chemicals. Advanced activities require students to model complex chemical theories and substantiate their findings with balanced chemical equations and quantitative data.

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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Separate a mixture into four components using the properties of solubility and magnetism.
  • Calculate the percent composition of each substance present in a mixture of solids.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform measurements using a graduated cylinder, volumetric flask, graduated pipet, ruler, digital scale, beaker, and thermometer.
  • Apply Archimedes’ principle and the water displacement method to measure the volume of an irregularly shaped object.
  • Create solutions of varying concentrations and densities by diluting a stock solution.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Produce a series of gases and monitor their behavior in the presence of a flame.
  • Expose a series of gases to calcium hydroxide and bromothymol blue and record observations.
  • Analyze experimental results to identify the gases present in exhaled air.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build a rudimentary calorimeter and measure the caloric content of three foods.
  • Compare experimental data to nutrition labels found on the packaging of food items.
  • Calculate the estimated caloric content of foods based on the nutrition label and Atwater factors.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use stoichiometry to determine the amount of reactant needed to create the maximum amount of product in a precipitation reaction.
  • Perform a precipitation reaction and measure the precipitate.
  • Calculate the percent yield of a precipitation reaction and compare the value to the theoretical yield.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform eight reactions and conduct scientific observations to describe chemical changes.
  • Investigate the results of heating an object and burning an object using magnesium, mossy zinc, copper(II) carbonate, and copper(II) nitrate.
  • Compare the heating and burning of chemicals.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Measure the melting point of tetradecanol.
  • Measure temperature and create a heating curve to determine the melting point and boiling point of water.
  • Immerse zinc metal in hydrochloric acid to produce a gas that will be tested by exposing a small amount of the gas to a flame.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform an EDTA/EBT titration with tap water.
  • Calculate the concentration of Ca2+ in a water sample.
  • Determine the average water hardness of the local water supply.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Classify 16 solutions as neutral, acidic, or basic using pH paper and bromothymol blue.
  • Use pH paper and bromothymol blue indicator to determine if an acid or a base neutralization reaction has occurred after mixing acids with bases.
  • Classify five household products as acids, bases, or neutral.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Observe osmosis through a semipermeable membrane.
  • Use experimental data to compare hypotonic and hypertonic solutions.
  • Determine the freezing and boiling points of three solutions with varying salt concentrations and graph the results.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a colorimeter. Prepare eleven standard solutions with known concentrations of FD&C blue dye.
  • Create a Beer’s law plot with the standard solutions and the use of a colorimeter, and determine the concentration of FD&C red dye in two commercial drink samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create chromatograms of seven food dyes.
  • Calculate Rf values for known and unknown solutions.
  • Analyze chromatogram data to identify the FD&C food dyes found in common food items.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a galvanic cell using filter paper, zinc and copper metals, solutions of zinc sulfate and copper sulfate, and glass beakers.
  • Set up and operate a multimeter and interpret voltage data.
  • Calculate the standard cell potential for a redox reaction.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Elicit a redox reaction by adding a solution containing silver ions to elemental copper.
  • Write an equation that describes the movement of electrons during a redox reaction.
  • Observe reactions of copper, lead, and zinc to create an activity series.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform chemical reactions with silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid to describe six anions.
  • Perform flame tests to describe five cations.
  • Conduct confirmation tests to identify the anion and/or cation of five unknown chemicals.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate Le Châtelier’s principle on chromate-dichromate equilibrium and on ferrocyanide-ferric ferrocyanide equilibrium by manipulating concentration and temperature.
  • Calculate the equilibrium constant (K) and reaction quotient (Q) of the chromate-dichromate reaction and a hypothetical reaction.
  • Apply Le Châtelier’s principle to explain observed changes in a chemical system.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Conduct reactions with varying reactant concentrations and calculate reaction rates.
  • Generate reaction rate data to determine the rate law for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulfate.
  • Summarize the rate law based on a performed chemical reaction and calculate k for a given rate law.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create an acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution.
  • Evaluate buffering capacity in response to additions of concentrated and dilute acids and bases.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply titration techniques on a sample of commercial vinegar using sodium hydroxide.
  • Calculate the molar concentration and percent concentration of acetic acid in commercial vinegar.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the equivalence point of the titration of a strong base (sodium hydroxide) with an unknown weak acid.
  • Create a pH titration curve using experimental data.
  • Calculate Ka for an unknown weak acid and determine the percent error.
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By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate how temperature and other factors impact dissolved oxygen levels in water.
  • Use Winkler’s solutions to analyze the amount of dissolved oxygen in water samples at different temperatures.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build the structures of 14 macromolecules using a modeling kit.**
    ** There are two versions of this lab. Only one version offers this modeling kit.
  • Perform qualitative tests to determine the presence of lipids, sugars, proteins, and starch in a variety of samples.
  • Identify an unknown through its composition of macromolecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Prepare a concentrated sugar solution and calculate the concentration using volume percent.
  • Use this stock solution to make four dilutions.
  • Make observations regarding the physical properties of the dilutions and calculate the concentration of each solution.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a solubility curve for aqueous ammonium chloride and compare to the published solubility curve of sodium chloride.
  • Determine the solubility and miscibility of five compounds.
  • Infer the polarity of a molecule based on its miscibility in water.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Perform a back titration using a commercial antacid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide.
  • Determine the amount of acid an antacid is able to neutralize.
  • Validate experimental results by performing a controlled experiment.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build a hydrometer and prepare five reference solutions with known carbohydrate contents.
  • Create a hydrometer calibration curve from the five reference solutions.
  • Determine carbohydrate concentrations of three beverage samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Use Benedict’s reagent to detect reducing sugars in nine substances.
  • Use IKI indicator to detect starch in nine substances.
  • Break down starch into maltose using α-amylase.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Predict the presence of lipids in five substances.
  • Use Sudan III to detect lipids in five substances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Predict the presence of proteins in six substances.
  • Use biuret reagent to detect peptide bonds in six substances.
  • Validate experimental results with nutritional data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Isolate casein from milk using both an acid and an enzyme, and use biuret reagent to test for the presence of casein.
  • Calculate the percent of casein present in samples of cheese curds made from three different solutions.
  • Synthesize cream cheese from milk.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Recite the rules for naming organic compounds.
  • Interpret chemical structures to name the organic compounds they represent.
  • Draw the chemical structures of hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons by interpreting their names.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Synthesize 4 soaps from plant oils by performing saponification reactions.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of synthesized soaps in distilled and hard water.
  • Compare the performance of soaps and a commercial detergent in experimental conditions and relate findings to chemical properties of the oils, including saturation and polarity.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of geometric and optical isomers using a modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models to identify stereoisomers.
  • Relate molecular arrangements to the chemical properties of stereoisomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct models of simple hydrocarbons, aromatics, aldehydes, and ketones using a modeling kit.
  • Compare molecular models and identify structural isomers.
  • Relate structural formulas to three-dimensional molecules.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the melting points of pure tetracosane, 1-tetradecanol, and a mixture of the 2 compounds.
  • Create a graph of the melting point data to determine the eutectic temperature and estimate the percent composition of the compounds present in the mixture.
  • Relate experimental data to molecular properties influencing melting points.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Outline 6 common NSAIDs, their uses, and biochemical pathways.
  • Perform a hydrolysis reaction with aspirin and water using iron(III) chloride to determine the presence of phenols.
  • Compare the purity of freshly powdered aspirin to powdered aspirin exposed to the air for 12 hours.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Write the names of organic compounds and their functional groups.
  • Identify and draw organic compounds containing functional groups.
  • Use the IUPAC name to identify functional groups in organic compounds.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw condensed structural formulas and line-angle formulas of organic compounds based on the IUPAC name.
  • Illustrate structural isomers based on organic compound molecular formulas.
  • Draw line-angle formulas and dash-wedge structures for geometric isomers.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Review the periodic table and study common polyatomic ions, strong acids, and diatomic elements.
  • Write the names of ionic, molecular, polyatomic, and acidic compounds by interpreting chemical formulas.
  • Determine the chemical formulas of ionic, molecular, polyatomic, and acidic compounds by interpreting their names.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Assemble and describe a colorimeter.
  • Create four stock phosphate solutions to create a calibration curve that will be used in an assay.
  • Use a calibration curve to determine the phosphate concentration for three environmental samples.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Determine the volume-pressure relationship of a gas using a syringe apparatus.
  • Create scatter plots from experimental data to illustrate Boyle’s law and analyze data to determine atmospheric air pressure.
  • Calculate the constant k from Boyle’s law using experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a calorimeter and measure change in enthalpy for two reactions: sodium hydroxide/ hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide/ ammonium chloride.
  • Create a cooling trend graph from calorimeter data for both reactions.
  • Predict change in enthalpy for a reaction of ammonia and hydrochloric acid using experimental data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Construct a calorimeter.
  • Calculate the calories released per gram of two fuels: isopropyl alcohol and paraffin wax.
  • Compare the molecular structure and energy content of each fuel.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Test the effectiveness of three commercial sunscreens using ultraviolet-sensitive beads.
  • Compare the effectiveness of active ingredients classified as chemical agents versus physical agents.
  • Synthesize two sunscreens with varying concentrations of zinc oxide and test their effectiveness.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Build and calibrate a diffraction grating spectroscope.
  • Use the spectroscope to view the spectra of various light sources and identify continuous versus line spectra.
  • Calculate frequency from wavelength for seven emission lines.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Add drops of four chemical compounds to aluminum foil, conduct observations, and draw conclusions about possible chemical reactions.
  • Perform fourteen chemical reactions using aqueous reactants and observe the final products.
  • Write balanced equations for observed chemical reactions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number of moles and atoms present in three weighed samples.
  • Determine the moles of water released by hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate.
  • Analyze experimental data to determine the empirical formula of a sample of hydrated potassium aluminum sulfate.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine a series of six reactions between sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid to illustrate the concept of limiting reactants and test the law of conservation of mass.
  • Calculate the theoretical yield of the product carbon dioxide from the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetic acid.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Apply the scientific method to address two real-world problems.
  • Construct hypotheses and collect qualitative and quantitative data from systematic observations of five white, solid substances.
  • Design a controlled experiment, conduct observations, and draw conclusions about the identities of three unknown substances.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Write numbers in scientific and standard notation.
  • Solve unit conversion problems and simple algebraic equations.
  • Create and analyze graphs.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Calculate the number of moles and atoms of each of the elements present in 3 items.
  • Design and conduct an experiment to determine the number of calcium atoms that are required to write your name with a piece of chalk.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create a schematic for the periodic table to designate the groups of elements.
  • Research the physical and chemical properties of element groups.
  • Determine the group name and number of a set of elements based on their properties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Examine the physical properties of common household items including the appearance, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.
  • Identify compounds as ionic or molecular based on physical properties.
  • Calculate atomic mass from isotope mass and abundance data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Create diagrams of common isotopes.
  • Relate atomic number and mass number.
  • Calculate atomic mass from isotope mass and abundance data.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Draw Lewis structures for 20 molecules.
  • Build a VSEPR model for each molecule with a molecular modeling kit.
  • Diagram resonance structures and classify molecules as linear, bent trigonal planar, trigonal pyramidal, tetrahedral, bipyramidal, or octahedral.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Extract anthocyanin pigment from red cabbage to create pH strips.
  • Determine the pH of 12 solutions using commercial and homemade pH indicators.
  • Categorize solutions as acids, bases, or neutral.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

  • Investigate the properties of cohesion and adhesion in water and demonstrate how these properties contribute to surface tension and capillary action.
  • Extract the anthocyanin pigment from red cabbage to create pH strips.
  • Measure the pH of common household items with commercial and homemade indicators.
  • Investigate the effect of buffers on a living system by graphing pH changes for unbuffered and buffered solutions.
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