# Course Builder

## Physics

### Mix and match any of the lessons below to customize your own Physics course syllabus.

With our hands-on physics lab kits and lessons, students will perform exciting examinations involving motion, electricity, simple machines, and optics. They will cover fundamental physics concepts while utilizing sophisticated lab-grade equipment, including capacitors, resistors, lenses, masses, and ramps. Whether mapping magnetic fields or creating an electric motor, your students will experience the joy of discovery as they uncover the forces that describe our universe.

## Semester 1 Lessons

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Construct a simple calorimeter.
- Calculate the specific heat capacity of two metal objects.
- Compare theoretical to experimental values of specific heat.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Observe the effects of varying the mass, length, and amplitude on the period of a pendulum.
- Calculate acceleration due to gravity.
- Evaluate the potential and kinetic energy of a pendulum.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure sound waves using a resonance tube.
- Calculate the speed of sound from experimental data.
- Apply the relationship between velocity, frequency, and wavelength to solve a series of problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Use Vernier Calipers to measure a marble and solid cylinder.
- Calculate volume and density.
- Relate density to composition.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Write numbers using scientific notation.
- Solve unit conversion and basic algebra problems.
- Create graphs from datasets.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Perform a simple acceleration experiment and collect data with student-supplied household materials.
- Calculate percent error and percent uncertainty.
- Relate experimental error to measuring devices and techniques.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure the spring constant of a spring.
- Use simulations to model spring constants combined in parallel and in series.
- Predict the relationship between spring potential energy and spring constant.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Use the applied forces of washers and spring scales on a ruler to calculate the torques about pivot points.
- Compare experimental results to theoretical values.
- Use a simulation to determine the mass of an unknown object by balancing torques.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Identify net forces for a variety of scenarios.
- Apply Newton’s laws.
- Sketch examples to illustrate relevant forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Create motion diagrams and graphs.
- Determine position, velocity, and acceleration from graphs.
- Calculate acceleration of objects on level surfaces and inclines.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure the periods of rotating masses using an apparatus and a simulation.
- Calculate the centripetal force acting on a spinning object.
- Compare theoretical to experimental values.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure static and kinetic friction forces.
- Calculate coefficients of friction and the maximum angle of repose.
- Determine relationships between friction, surface area, and normal force.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Construct free-body diagrams.
- Test the effects of different projectile properties on motion using a simulation.
- Calculate drag and terminal velocity for several objects with different properties.

## Semester 2 Lessons

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Predict maximum velocity and initial position using energy in a simulation.
- Calculate energy loss due to friction.
- Apply the law of conservation of energy to solve problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Model radioactive decay.
- Create graphs of half-life trend.
- Predict parent and daughter isotopes over time.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure current, voltage, and resistance of circuits.
- Compute equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel and in series.
- Relate the visual intensity of light bulbs to the power produced in the electrical circuit.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Construct a simple circuit.
- Measure voltage and current with a multimeter.
- Apply Ohm’s law to calculate the resistance of a circuit.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure electric potential using a digital multimeter and conductive paper.
- Visualize electric fields and equipotential lines using a simulation.
- Calculate electric field strength and direction from electric potential.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Determine the time constant and total charge of a capacitor.
- Examine the current in a charging capacitor using a multimeter.
- Analyze the effects of plate separation on capacitance using the simulation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Determine the index of refraction for a glass slab using Snell’s law and graphical analyses.
- Calculate the critical angles of materials using a simulation.
- Determine the index of refraction using the critical angle of several materials.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Use a plane mirror to test the law of reflection.
- Trace reflecting light rays.
- Measure the image distance of a reflected object.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Observe the polarization of light from three sources.
- Determine the polarization axis of polarizing filters.
- Graphically reproduce Malus’ law.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Observe the interference pattern produced by passing a red laser beam through a diffraction grating.
- Measure the lines per millimeter for transmission diffraction grating.
- Calculate the wavelength of red light using a diffraction grating.

## Additional Lessons

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Generate magnetic fields using bar magnets.
- Trace and analyze fields for shape and direction.
- Determine the relative strength of magnetic fields at different locations.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Use Vernier Calipers to measure a marble and solid cylinder.
- Calculate volume and density.
- Relate density to composition.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Correlate a real-world scenario with the steps of the scientific method.
- Compare and contrast scientific law and theory and create a Venn diagram to illustrate attributes of each.
- Classify and explain real-world examples of hypotheses, laws, theories, and opinions.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Construct pulley systems to lift various masses.
- Compare the efficiency of single and compound pulley systems.
- Calculate the mechanical advantage of different pulley systems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure the focal length of a converging lens.
- Calculate the magnification of two converging lenses using the thin-lens equation.
- Use ray tracing to determine the image distance viewed through a converging lens.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Examine the transfer of momentum between marbles.
- Calculate the conservation of momentum in one dimension.
- Solve a series of motion problems by applying the conservation of momentum theorem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Solve problems using kinematic equations.
- Graph position and velocity in two dimensions.
- Relate horizontal and vertical position to velocity and acceleration using a simulation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Use a syringe apparatus to determine the relationship between gas and pressure and volume.
- Graph experimental data to illustrate Boyle’s law.
- Solve a series of pressure and volume problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Graph inverse-square force data.
- Relate how inverse-square forces influence interactions between objects.
- Apply the right-hand rule to predict magnetic field deflections.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Calculate contact forces acting on various objects.
- Create freebody diagrams and graphs of these forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Solve a series of problems by applying addition, multiplication, division, power operators, and derivatives to measured values in order to calculate propagated uncertainties.

## Kit-Free Virtual Labs

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Use the applied forces of washers and spring scales on a ruler to calculate the torques about pivot points.
- Compare experimental results to theoretical values.
- Use a simulation to determine the mass of an unknown object by balancing torques.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Construct pulley systems to lift various masses.
- Compare the efficiency of single and compound pulley systems.
- Calculate the mechanical advantage of different pulley systems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Solve problems using kinematic equations.
- Graph position and velocity in two dimensions.
- Relate horizontal and vertical position to velocity and acceleration using a simulation.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure the spring constant of a spring.
- Use simulations to model spring constants combined in parallel and in series.
- Predict the relationship between spring potential energy and spring constant.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Predict maximum velocity and initial position using energy in a simulation.
- Calculate energy loss due to friction.
- Apply the law of conservation of energy to solve problems.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Examine the transfer of momentum between marbles.
- Calculate the conservation of momentum in one dimension.
- Solve a series of motion problems by applying the conservation of momentum theorem.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Measure the periods of rotating masses using an apparatus and a simulation.
- Calculate the centripetal force acting on a spinning object.
- Compare theoretical to experimental values.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Construct free-body diagrams.
- Test the effects of different projectile properties on motion using a simulation.
- Calculate drag and terminal velocity for several objects with different properties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Calculate contact forces acting on various objects.
- Create freebody diagrams and graphs of these forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Solve a series of problems by applying addition, multiplication, division, power operators, and derivatives to measured values in order to calculate propagated uncertainties.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Identify net forces for a variety of scenarios.
- Apply Newton’s laws.
- Sketch examples to illustrate relevant forces.

By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:

- Correlate a real-world scenario with the steps of the scientific method.
- Compare and contrast scientific law and theory and create a Venn diagram to illustrate attributes of each.